The term psychomotricity is divided into two parts: the motor and the psyche, which constitute the process of integral development of the person. The word motor refers to movement, while psycho determines psychic activity in two phases: socio-affective and cognitive. In other words, in the actions of children, all their affectivity and desires are articulated, but also all their possibilities of communication and conceptualization.
What are motor skills?
From birth, children develop movements and gestures. Their way of moving, perceiving, understanding, communicating and playing changes over the course of primary school age. All these developments are interconnected, the psychological and motor ones cannot be separated from each other. That is why we also speak of “psychomotricity”, two terms that are inextricably linked. During the first years of life, children develop at a rapid pace. There are big differences between young children and middle and high school children.
Psychomotor practice can adopt two orientations, therapeutic and educational. The golden age of “psychomotricity” is from birth to 8 or 9 years. Through the body, play and movement, children learn to control their space, their time and their movements within an altruistic process.
As we said earlier in the first years of life, psychomotricity plays a very important role since it directly influences the intellectual, affective and social development of children, helping them in their relationship with the environment and taking into account unique and individual aspects of each one, as well as their needs and interests.
Psychomotor work is divided into three levels:
- At the motor level, which will allow the child to master and control their body movement.
- At the cognitive level, it allows for improving the memory, attention, concentration and creativity of the child.
- On a social and affective level, it will allow the child to know and face their fears and relate to others.
Psychomotricity has two qualities: generating movement and doing it at will.
Types of motor skills and abilities
Some activities enhance these motor skills; however, we must understand the difference between gross and fine psychomotricity:
They are movements related to large muscles, such as the legs and arms. Some of these activities are running, jumping or throwing objects. They involve the ability to control and balance the body.
These acts involve the skill of the hands and fingers, such as grasping or separating small objects.
Both psychomotor skills are essential. For gross motor skills, experts recommend more physical contact activities, while for fine motor skills, they recommend using tools such as small toys and performing meticulous activities.
Here are some examples of gross and fine motor skills:
– Gross motor skills:
Free dance: Dancing can be a very good motor exercise, moving the head, shoulders, knees and hands dancing to the rhythm of any musical genre; this boosts gross motor skills.
Jumping: Whether using a mini trampoline or jumping from one place to another, this activity strengthens muscles, sharpens coordination and promotes precision. This and other exercises favor gross motor skills, and practicing sports from a young age is always a great idea.
– Fine motor skills:
Coloring and trimming: This is an activity that helps motor development because children must stay within the silhouette when coloring an object. They must be careful when cutting an object, or they will spoil it.
Build towers with blocks: Kids love this game, and they can work their gripper grip and hand-eye coordination.
Painting: Whether children use a brush or their fingers, their manual dexterity is reinforced. They have greater control of brushes as tools, and this activity increases their sensitivity to textures.
The way you engage with your children and the guidance you give them is essential for interactive play to lead to better fine psychomotricity.
What are psychomotor skills for?
– It serves as a channel since the child can unload his impulsivity without guilt. This discharge will be decisive for your emotional balance.
– Facilitates the acquisition of the body schema, allowing the child to become aware and knowledgeable of his own psychomotor body.
– Promotes body control, through psychomotricity, the child learns to master and adapt their body movement.
– Helps to affirm their laterality, postural control, balance, coordination, and location in time and space.
– Stimulates the perception and discrimination of the qualities of objects, as well as the exploration of the different uses that can be given to them.
– Create habits that facilitate learning, improve memory, attention and concentration, as well as the creativity of the child.
– Introduces spatial notions such as up-down, side-to-side, front-back, near-far and others, from their own body.
– Reinforces the basic notions of color, size, shape and quantity through direct experience with the elements of the environment.
– Integrates socially with peers, and promotes group play.
– It helps to face certain fears, the child strengthens not only his body but also his personality overcoming certain fears that previously accompanied him.
– Reaffirms their self-concept and self-esteem, feeling more emotionally secure, as a result of knowing their own limits and abilities.
In short, we can say that psychomotricity considers movement as a means of expression, communication and relationship of the human being with others since it plays an important role in the harmonious development of the personality since the child not only develops his motor skills but also those related to intellectual, linguistic and affective skills.
All the information we give you in this article is indicative as each child and each family is different and unique.
Carolina González Ramos
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